Flipped Instruction

I started "flipping" my instructional practices in the beginning of the 2011-2012 school year. They theory has gotten a lot of traction in educational circles and many of my collegues in my professional online learning community are piloting "flipped instruction" and the qualitative and quantitative data has been supportive of this approach.

Flipped Learning-A Definition
I will try my best in explaining this and I'm sure that if any old hands that have done this before might disagree and to them I beg for their forgiveness. Actually, I think that the best way to explain 'flipped instruction' is to compare it to a traditional lesson.

Traditional Lesson
The traditional lesson (in any subject, but I'll use math for a primary example) usually has this format:
  • 5-10 Minutes: Warm Up Problem/Debrief of last nights homework
  • 20 Minutes: Explanation of the lesson, learning objectives
  • 15 Minutes: Guided practice with teacher checking for understanding
  • Extension: Homework outside of class

Flipped Lesson
Before I outline what a typical flipped lesson might be, let my share it's rationale. When students take an assignment home, there obviously is no teacher to help them. It is assumed that if a teacher gives help in class, the student is therefore 'ready' for independent practice. The problem however, is that in mathematics, assignments typically get harder towards the end of the assignment. The first part of the assignment has more recall and application tasks and the end of the assignment has more synthesis and analysis which are much higher order thinking skills. It should be no surprise that kids come back to school and say "I didn't understand this, so I couldn't do it." Come now the flipped lesson.

With a flipped lesson, instead of introducing a topic in class, the students are first exposed to it at home. That is their homework. They are to watch videos or take notes on designated pages in order to prepare them for the practice that they will do in class. It's basically a way to "front-load" the instruction so when students come to class, they're prepared and the concept will not seem so new. What this means is that there is less time for demonstrations at the beginning of class, as the students have already been introduced to the material. Here's a breakdown of what a typical flipped lesson format is like:

  • 5-10 Minutes: Warm Up Problem/checking notes for today's lesson
  • 5 Minutes: Clarification of the lesson and questions from note taking.
  • 30-40 Minutes: Individual practice with teacher checking for understanding. If you have answers to the homework that you can post in class, it's really helpful.
  • Closure: Student's self-assess their productivity, number or % of questions correct.
  • Extension: Notes on the lesson for next class.
I think that 30-40 minutes of practice is adequate for learning and retention and a flipped lesson gives students more time in class to practice because the teacher is spending less time teaching. Assessment factors in as well. For instance, we don't count homework in the grade but do enter it in the gradebook as a "0" weighting. Homework is practice, early in the scaffolded ladder of learning so students should not be penalized for not understanding from the start. To grade homework is akin to teaching a student how to shoot free-throw shots in basketball and them telling them if they can't shoot 80% after 5 minutes of practice, they won't start in the next game. For that reason, we don't grade homework and it makes it more objective for students to assess their productivity. However, if your school has a grading policy where it must be graded, you can give them spot checks in the last five minutes.
Resources on Flipped Learning
"Flipping With Kirch"-Mrs. Kirch is a US based educator and writes a ton on flipped instruction. She collected data through her own action research which has been supportive of this approach.
"Five Best Practices for the Flipped Classroom" Mr. Andrew Miller outlines thoughts and options for technology integration and classroom management for flipped instruction.
"Let's Use Video to Reinvent Education"-Salman Khan of the famous Khan academy makes the case for internet resources to help students learn.

Related Posts
"Making Flipped Lessons Meaningful"
"Using Homework Effectively"
"Flipped Lessons"


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